Biometrics is a branch of information technology that aims towards establishing ones identity based on personal traits. Applying biometrics volume 2 is the followup to volume 1, moving from the basic information about biometrics more generally to specific case studies and applications. Biometrics is the automated use of physiological or. The person is known to be existing in the database. Biometric data processing is now often used in automated authentication verification and identification procedures, in particular for the control. In this article we briefly explain the basics of biometrics.
Biometrics is the use of a persons physical or behavioral characteristics for the purpose of identification and verification. Far frr biometrics biometricsterminology biometric template. The use of biometrics in payment systems is rapidly gaining prominence. Jain et al an introduction to biometric recognition wishes to operate at 0. That is to say, biometrics are biological measurements. Understanding the strengths and weaknesses of biometrics. Classification of biometric traits biometrics system. The basic premise of biometric authentication is that every person can be accurately identified by his or her intrinsic physical or behavioral. Alphonse bertillon, a perisian anthropologist and police desk clerk, developed a method. Challenges and opportunities iii preface in 2001 the computer science and telecommunications board cstb of the national research council nrc formed a committee whose 2003 report who goes there. One of the primary functions of any security system is the control of people into or out of protected areas, such as physical buildings, information systems, and our national border. Many different aspects of human physiology, chemistry or behavior can be used for biometric identification and authentication.
The encyclopedia of biometrics is the foremost reference for anyone needing information on the subject. How passive biometrics can help in it data security. Biometric identification authenticates secure entry, data or access via human biological information such as dna or fingerprints. Biometrics, smart cards, cryptography, fingerprint recognition, matchoncard, light.
Biometric characteristics are unique, personal characteristics that can be used to establish a persons identity. The handbook of biometrics an edited volume contributed by prominent invited researchers in biometrics describes the fundamentals as well as the latest advancements in the burgeoning field of biometrics. Sep 09, 2003 one of the primary functions of any security system is the control of people into or out of protected areas, such as physical buildings, information systems, and our national border. Such methods are based on those items a person has in their physical or mental possession e. Guidelines for the introduction of biometric measures. With an az format, the comprehensive encyclopedia of biometrics provides easy access to relevant information on all aspects of biometrics for those seeking entry into the broad field of biometrics. It is considered a reliable solution for protecting the identity and the rights of individuals as it recognizes unique and immutable features. Biometrics 910 retinal scan the most secure biometric reveal some medical conditions signature professional forgers may be able to reproduce signatures that fool the system voice a combination of physiological and behavioral biometrics. Biometrics refers to automated methods of recognizing a person based on physiological or behavioral characteristics. Biometrics is gaining significance in the modern world, however the society is also faced with many important decisions regarding long term attitude towards it. Biometrics though in its nascent form has a number of tractable aspects like security, data integrity, fault tolerance and system recovery.
I already mentioned the use of hand geometry to identify staff at a nuclear reactor in the late 1970s. From the familiar fingerprint to cuttingedge retina scanning and facial recognition technology, it is increasingly the goto mechanism for protecting and providing access to sensitive data including money and confidential account information. Primary advantage is that the biometric system is able to operate handsfree and a users identity is confirmed by simply staring at the screen. Although passive biometrics as an it security mechanism is still finding its niche, it is safe to say that it offers a nice balance of user convenience and data security. Biometrics wave poised to transform future driving. The encyclopedia is composed of approximately 250 entries, covering all areas of biometrics including the following. Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, is a rapidly evolving field with applications ranging from accessing ones computer to gaining entry into a country. The term biometrics covers a wide range of technologies that can be. The earliest form of biometrics appeared on the scene back in the 1800s. The unimodal systems have to deal with various challenges such as lack of secrecy, nonuniversality of samples, extent of users comfort and freedom while dealing with the system, spoofing attacks on stored data, etc.
Challenges and opportunities the national academy of sciences is a private, nonprofit, selfperpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. This approach has been referred to as cognitive biometrics. What are reasonable, realistic expectations for biometrics. The deployment of largescale biometric systems in both. Most cited biometric technology today articles elsevier. Software program collect biometric and other identifying info save biometrics and info to database query and search the database currently 1. Mobile biometrics solutions live at the intersection of connectivity and identity. It is a rapidly evolving field with applications ranging from securely accessing ones computer to gaining entry into a country. Biometrics is a technological and scientific authentication method based on biology and used in information assurance ia. Basic statistical concepts in biometrics hypothesis testing, type i and ii error, far, frr 4. Face recognition is a leading approach to person recognition. The encyclopedia of biometrics provides a comprehensive reference to topics in biometrics, including concepts, modalities, algorithms, devices, systems, security, performance testing, applications and standardization with an az format, the encyclopedia of biometrics. Biometrics is the process by which a persons unique physical and other traits are detected and recorded by an electronic device or system as a means of confirming identity. Biometrics is the measurement and statistical analysis of peoples unique physical and behavioral characteristics.
They incorporate either one or many biometric modalities for authentication or identification purposes, and take advantage of smartphones, tablets, other types of handhelds, wearable technology, and internet of things devices for versatile deployment capabilities. Biometrics is only one of the ways used to establish or verify identity today. In addition to looking at specific biometric technologies, we will also discuss how to successfully implement, operate, and evaluate a. Biometrics is the automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioral and biological characteristics.
Biometrics offers greater security and convenience than traditional methods of personal recognition. At the most basic, biometrics can be best explained by breaking down the word. The global biometrics market is growing at a fast pace, initially due to the need to. To assess the value of biometric security applications, it is useful to know a little about the basic principles of this technology. Biometric systems rely on the use of physical or behavioral traits, such as fingerprints, face, voice and hand geometry, to establish the identity of an individual. Fingerprint and speech technology research based, ph. Biometrics identify people by measuring some aspect of individual anatomy or physiology such as your hand geometry or fingerprint, some deeply ingrained skill, or other behavioral characteristic such as your handwritten signature, or something that is a combination of the two such as your voice. Biometric technologies can be read from start to end for those wanting an overview of the whole biometrics field, but also used as a reference, thanks to the index at the back. Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, is the science of establishing the identity of a person based on physical or behavioral attributes. Authentication through the lens of pri acy, considered several authentication technologies, one of which was biometrics. Overview of biometric techniques fingerprint, signature, iris, face, pace. Some of these challenges can be addressed by employing a multimodal biometric system. It is designed for professionals composed of practitioners and researchers in biometrics, pattern recognition and computer security.
Biometricsoverview the term biometrics is composed of two words. So biometrics, in this context, is the use of computers to recognize people, despite all of the acrossindividual similarities and withinindividual variations. Alphonse bertillon, a perisian anthropologist and police desk clerk, developed a. With an az format, the comprehensive encyclopedia of biometrics provides easy access to relevant information on all aspects of biometrics for those. A read is counted each time someone views a publication summary such as the title, abstract, and list of authors, clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the fulltext. Leading biometric technologies based on direct imaging, measurement, and analysis of physical patterns are fingerprint recognition, eye and retinal scans, face facial recognition, and hand geometry. In wellcontrolled settings, accuracy is comparable to that of historically reliable biometrics including fingerprint and iris recognition phillips et al.
The three commonly used modalities in the biometrics field, namely, fingerprint, face, and iris are covered in detail in this book. Biometrics is one of the rapidly growing fields in the information technology sector with fingerprint recognition expected to remain the most dominant form of biometric technology. Among the features measured are face, fingerprints, hand geometry, handwriting, iris, retina, vein, and voice. A common theme throughout volume 2 addresses the issue of what a buyerenduser needs to know to make an informed.
Unlike pass cards, keys and passwords, for example, the physical characteristics that can be used for biometric solutions. Passive biometrics and does not require a persons cooperation highly complex technology and largely software based. The technology is mainly used for identification and access control, or for identifying individuals who are under surveillance. Pdf encyclopedia of biometrics jeffrey cohn academia. It is when a candidate uses a biometric system for the first time, it. Biometrics is presently a buzzword in the domain of information security as it provides. Accomplishing tomorrows training requirements today. The encyclopedia of biometrics provides a comprehensive reference to topics in biometrics, including concepts, modalities, algorithms, devices, systems, security, performance testing, applications and standardization with an az format, the encyclopedia. All statements and information in the book are believed to be accurate at the time being but are presented without warranty of any kind. Biometrics in 2020 a helpful illustrated overview thales. Technologies called biometrics can automate the identification of people by one or more of their distinct physical or behavioral characteristics. Biometric characteristics are unique, personal characteristics that can be used to establish a persons. The encyclopedia of biometrics provides a comprehensive reference to topics in biometrics, including concepts, modalities, algorithms, devices, systems, security, performance testing, applications and standardization.
The term biometrics derives from the word biometry, which refers to the statistical analysis of biological observations and phenomena. Pdf on jan 1, 2008, f alonsofernandez and others published encyclopedia of biometrics find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate. The subject of the current reportthe automatic recognition of individuals based on biological and behavioral traitsis one meaning, apparently dating from the early 1980s. It is a digital reference of the distinct characteristics that are extracted from a biometric sample. Working document on biometrics european commission europa eu. Understand biometric authentication and identification. Thanks to the unique nature of many of these measurements, biometrics are particularly suited for identification. In some applications, biometrics can replace or supplement the existing technology. A framework for the adoption of biometric atm authentication in the kenyan banks benson m. Cognitive biometrics is based on specific responses of the brain to stimuli, which could be used to trigger a computer database search. This paper is intended to help those considering an investment in biometrics whether for personal, business or other use. Arranged alphabetically by topic such as ear biometrics or wavefront coded iris biometric systems, each entry, written by a specialist in the field, contains a list of synonyms, a definition, a detailed description, a summary, and a list. Few other modalities like hand geometry, ear, and gait. Biometric systems include several linked components for effective functionality.
Jan 09, 2018 biometrics are fast becoming an integral part of online security. Fundamentals of biometrics an entire section of volume 1 provides an introduction to biometrics so the reader has a basic foundation and generic understanding of the science behind the technology. Biometrics are fast becoming an integral part of online security. Recently, a new trend has been developed that merges human perception to computer database in a brainmachine interface. Aug 14, 2017 passive biometrics does not require the user to actively provide credentials, passively collecting user data in forms such as of face, voice and iris recognition techniques. Using biometrics biometrics work best in public places or under observation remote veri. Beginning with the origins of biometrics, and taking the reader through explanations of the.
The idea of using biometrics for authentication is not new. We believe that the subject is not for the faint of heart, but at the same. Then we will present our application of challengeresponse protocol to biometric data for easing the. This course is designed as an introduction to the history and fundamentals of biometrics, with a specific focus on physiological biometrics such as of the face, eyes, or hands. A number of biometric characteristics have been in use for different applications 1, 2.1449 791 838 1186 64 235 5 1069 670 363 322 1375 651 381 407 1 465 334 260 984 1080 1355 1057 725 37 1439 32 769 533 1184 729 740 208 948 126 1144 341 240 1188 1485 887 69